Lucifer was what we'd call the "top" angel in Heaven, to put it simply. This document, however, may have been completed as late as the seventh century C.E. This is not to deny that Satan exists, but we need to question our basis for calling him Lucifer. As late as the fourth century, however, a Christian bishop could still be called St. Lucifer, and his followers the Luciferians. Origen, the third-century church father, was one of the earliest writers that promoted the Lucifer-as-Satan theory in the Christian church (Origen De Principiis 1.5.5; compare Preface 6; Hexapla Is 14:12). Further information on this question may be obtained from Question 41 in B. J. Oropeza, 99 Answers to Angels, Demons, and Spiritual Warfare (Downers Grove: IVP). ** Later church fathers who popularized the notion that Satan was once a good angel named Lucifer include Augustine, Peter Lombard and Thomas Aquinas (for example, Augustine De Genesi ad literem 3.10; Peter Lombard Sentences 2.6). This would hardly be true of Lucifer or Satan. The word in Hebrew is hêlêl, coming from the verb “to shine” and meaning “bright one” or “daystar.” The word Lucifer is the Latin translation of this word. However, music is a part of what takes place around the throne of God in heaven. This technique is like starting with the “Humpty Dumpty” rhyme and then substituting the name of a national leader for Humpty Dumpty. The timing of this casting down, then, seems to center on the Christ event. Fear of the unknown is a rather powerful thing, as we are learning through the current Coronavirus shutdown. In our modern terms, he was the Director Of All Things Musical in Heaven. What is the timing order of an 1985 Plymouth horizon? So I threw you to the earth; I made a spectacle of you before kings” (28:17). These references are perhaps the closest we can get to a Satan=Lucifer theory around the time of the first century. Lucifer image copyright @ Caelicorn. Some affirm that 2 Enoch gives the first reference to Lucifer as Satan. In fact, it makes no sense at all when we read that the Lord (through Ezekiel) denounces the king of Tyre: “You are a man and not a god” (Ezek 28:2). Ezekiel thus sarcastically alludes to the king as living in the best of circumstances and beauty: as a cherub angel living in God’s presence and as Adam in the delightful Garden of Eden (28:13-15). He was an archangel who contemplated the impossible—placing his throne above the clouds, becoming equal to the one who later cast him out of heaven. Nowadays the Satan-as-Lucifer theory has become “gospel truth” without a single shred of compelling biblical evidence. In my previous post on Single Christians and Erotic Boundaries, pt. * See John Burton Russell, Satan: The Early Christian Tradition, Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1981:130; J. H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha [Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985], 2:252. Satan is neither a man nor a god, but the leader of fallen angels (Mt 25:41; Rev 12:7-9).